Threatened by Islamic extremism, Christian and Jewish groups in Turkey are growing more fearful amid increasing terror attacks and the government's state of emergency following a failed coup attempt, representatives of the minority communities told VOA.
Christian and Jews represent about two-tenths of one percent of Turkey's mostly Muslim population of 79 million.
But pro-government media outlets as well as some government officials have accused them of playing a role in the July coup attempt and have stepped up the rhetoric against Christians and Jews.
At a "Democracy and Martyrs" rally in August, a pro-government, million-strong anti-coup demonstration in Istanbul, three of the speakers linked religious minorities to coup plotters, calling them "seeds of Byzantium, "crusaders," and a "flock of infidels."
Christian and Jewish leaders, some of whom denounced the coup attempt, were in attendance at the rally in attempt to show solidarity with the government. Turkey has been in a state of emergency since the coup attempt and tens of thousands of Turks have been jailed for investigations.
Turkish human rights lawyer Orhan Kemal Cengiz told VOA pro-government media have "embraced an alarming narrative of scapegoating Turkey's religious minorities and connecting the coup plot to them."
"Particularly pro-government media outlets have taken an anti-U.S. and anti-EU attitude, which I can call a xenophobic attitude, in which they attempt to demonize the West and accuse it of the coup attempt," he said. "And this narrative targets and harms non-Muslims in Turkey."
Scholar Rifat Bali, who has written several books on Turkish Jews, says that even though the report of minority ties to the coup have no foundation, Christians and Jews are being targeted.
"The nonsensical, so-called news reports that claim that some religious minorities in Turkey are behind the coup attempt are not surprising," he said. "They are actually quite expected. In an environment where conspiracy theories are commonplace and prevalent, looking for foreigners behind everything becomes normal."
Christians and Jews, who have been living in parts of what is now Turkey for centuries, have been exposed to violent attacks in Turkey's history. The 1934 anti-Jewish pogrom in eastern Thrace, and the 1955 anti-Christian pogrom in Istanbul, forced tens of thousands of non-Muslims to flee Turkey.
The spread of Islamic State (IS) terror in Turkey in recent months has shaken Christians and Jews.
According to news reports, IS cell members have plotted terrors attacks on churches and synagogues in Turkey. IS sees Christianity and Judaism as an enemy to its radical Muslim ideology.
Foreigners, including European Christians and Israeli Jews, have died in terror attacks in Turkey linked to IS.
Threats against Christians and churches on social media by Islamist extremists in Turkey have intensified.
"Some people have sent death threats to the mobile phones of 15 pastors," said Umut Sahin, the secretary-general of the Union of Protestant Churches, an umbrella organization for Protestant denominations in Turkey.
"They used the same terms and arguments as IS in their text messages," said Sahin, a pastor in Izmir. "They sent the pastors propaganda videos of IS."
There are about 10,000 Protestant Christians in Turkey.
Protestant church leader Ihsan Ozbek said some churches have canceled Sunday services because of fears of an IS attack.
"This has created deep fear and panic in our community," he said of continuing terror from IS.
Creating more refugees
Some Turkish Assyrian Christians, whose brethren in Syria have faced killings and kidnappings at the hands of IS, are finding safety abroad.
"The number of Assyrians immigrating to Western countries is also on the rise," said Erkan Metin, an Assyrian human rights lawyer in Turkey. "Some have left Turkey and many others are preparing for that."
There are about 25,000 Assyrians in Turkey who live mostly in the southeast.
"Many Assyrians from Turkey are also citizens of Western countries," said Tuma Celik, the Turkey representative of the European Syriac Union (ESU) and the editor-in-chief of the Assyrian monthly newspaper, Sabro.
"Those Assyrians used to spend part of the year in Turkey," he said. "But as threats of IS are on the rise and the purges of the government are getting increasingly commonplace and violent, many of them have not come to Turkey this year."
But most of Turkey's 18,000 Jews, who live mainly in Istanbul, are quietly staying put.
Synagogues have taken tight security measures. British media reports, citing intelligence officials in Turkey, reported in the spring that IS was plotting attacks on Jewish institutions in Turkey.
"There is a continued war environment both inside and outside of Turkey," said Isil Demirel, an anthropologist from Turkey who writes for the online newspaper Avlaremoz, which covers Jewish-related topics.
"And the fact that the war is perpetrated by a group called the 'Islamic State' in the name of religion further intensifies the fears and concerns of people about their lives and future," he said.
Two Turkish synagogues were bombed in 2003 by Islamist terrorists.
"So the Jews in Turkey have learnt required lessons from these attacks and are doing their best to take precautions to prevent potential ones," Rifat Bali, a prominent Jewish scholar based in Istanbul, told VOA.
Source: Voice of America